African-Americans have contributed much to Virginia heritage and culture.
The following are a few African-Americans with ties to Virginia.
James Armistead Lafayette - (1748*-1830) New Kent; Born into slavery. Joined the American Continental Army to fight for the American Revolution under Marquis de Lafayette. Became a spy. His intel enabled Washington's army to prevent 10,000 British soldiers from invading Yorktown, which led to the British surrender on October 19, 1781. He returned to slave life until granted emancipation by petition in 1787.* Some sources indicate James Armistead Lafayette was born in 1760.
Gabriel Prosser - (1776-1800) Richmond; Born into slavery on the Brookfield Plantation in Henrico County. Educated, literate blacksmith who planned the unfulfilled "Gabriel's Rebellion" in 1800 - a plan to kill every white with the exception of French, Methodist, Quaker and poor. Gabriel was captured and hanged at Richmond's 15th & Broad gallows on October 10, 1800 at the age of 24.
Dred Scott - (1795-1858) Southampton County; Born into slavery on the Peter Blow farm. Scott is best known for fighting legally for his freedom and the freedom of his family. The U.S. Supreme Court ruled against Scott in Dred Scott v. Sandford, 1857. Seeing the Scotts as too controversial to keep, then owner, Mrs. Emerson, returned the Scotts to the Blow family who granted their freedom in May 1857.
Nat Turner - (1800-1831) Southampton County; Born into slavery on the Turner Plantation where he was taught reading, writing, and religion. Preacher who claimed God called him to lead the slaves from bondage. Led a slave insurrection known as Nat Turner's Rebellion, which resulted in the deaths of more than 50 white people and harsher laws against slaves.
Joseph Jenkins Roberts - (1809-1876) Norfolk; Born free at a time when many were born into slavery. Boarded a ship to Liberia with his mother, six siblings, and wife in 1829. Became a sheriff in 1833; first black governor of the colony of Liberia (1840-1847); elected the first president of the new Republic of Liberia (1848). Served as president twice (1848-1856, 1872-1876). Helped found Liberia College (1851); served as a professor and president.
Mary Elizabeth Bowser - (1839-unknown) Richmond; Union spy working as a servant for Varina Davis, wife of the President of the Confederacy, Jefferson Davis. Inducted into the U.S. Army Military Intelligence Corps Hall of Fame (1995).
William Harvey Carney - (1840-1908) Norfolk; First black Medal of Honor recipient, decorated for his "extraordinary heroism on 18 July 1863 ... when the color sergeant was shot down, Sergeant Carney grasped the flag, led the way ... was twice severely wounded."
Booker T. Washington – (1856-1915 ) Hardy; Educator, Founder of Tuskegee Institute.
Maggie L. Walker – (1864*-1934) Richmond; First woman bank president in America, Advocate of black women's rights* A discovery in 2009 revealed bank records showing Walker's birth earlier than the widely believed 1867 date.
Adam Clayton Powell, Sr. - (1865-1953) Franklin County; Yale University graduate, prominent minister for Abyssinian Baptist Church in Harlem, New York between 1908 and 1936. By the time his son took over the pastorate in 1937, church membership totaled 7,000, making it one of the largest Protestant churches in the world.
Robert Russa Moton – (1867-1940) Amelia County; Educator, Lawyer, successor to Booker T. Washington as President of Tuskegee Institute.
Bill "Bojangles" Robinson – (1878-1949) Richmond; Dancer, stage and screen actor in early 1900s.
Dr. Edwin B. Henderson - (1883-1977) Washington, DC, settled in Falls Church for more than 50 years; "Grandfather of Black Basketball;" Introduced basketball to African-Americans on a wide-scale, organized basis in 1904; Author of The Negro in Sports (1939); Principle organizer of the first rural branch of the NAACP.
Roger Arliner Young - (1889-1964) Clifton Forge; Zoologist; The first African-American woman to be awarded a Ph.D. in zoology.
Oliver White Hill - (1907-2007) Richmond; Lead attorney with Davis v. County School Board of Prince Edward County, which was consolidated with Brown v. Board of Education at the Supreme Court; First African American Richmond City Council member (1949). Highly decorated with the top-prize being the Presidential Medal of Freedom bestowed by President William J. Clinton (1999).
Ella Fitzgerald – (1917-96) Newport News; "The First Lady of Song;" Grammy Award-winning Jazz Singer.
Pearl Bailey– (1918-88) Newport News; Actress, Singer and Author; Tony Award (1967); Medal of Freedom Award (1988).
Wendell Scott - (1921-1990) Danville; First (and only, as of this publication) African-American to win a NASCAR race (1963); "State Hero" Resolution by the Virginia General Assembly (1991); International Motorsports Hall of Fame Inductee (1999); Virginia Sports Hall of Fame Inductee (2000).
L. Douglas Wilder – (1931- ) Richmond; First elected African-American Governor in U.S. history.
Henry L. Marsh III- (1933- ) Isle of Wight County; Attorney involved with Brown v. Board of Education on the Virginia front; first African American mayor of Richmond (1977-82); Virginia State Senator (1992-present).
Barbara Johns - (1935-1991) New York City, but grew up in Farmville, Prince Edward County. Sixteen year old junior at Robert Russa Moton High School who organized a student strike for a new school building (1951). The NAACP advised the students to sue for integration. The Farmville case was one of the five eventually rolled into the Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka case that declared segregation unconstitutional (1954).
Lonnie Liston Smith – (1940- ) Richmond; Jazz pianist and keyboardist recording with notable musicians Pharaoh Sanders and Miles Davis. Meshed jazz with rap in the 90s.
Don Pullen– (1941-95) Roanoke; Jazz pianist, organist, and composer. Well-received in Europe for his avant-garde jazz.
Arthur Ashe – (1943-93) Richmond; Tennis player, writer, commentator; Wimbledon champion (1975); Medal of Freedom Award (1993).
Tim Reid – (1944 - ) Norfolk; Actor, writer, director, producer."WKRP in Cincinnati", "Simon & Simon", "Sister, Sister". Co-founder of New Millennium Studios in Petersburg, VA.
Willie Lanier – (1945- ) Clover; Football player, Kansas City (1967-77); member, pro football Hall of Fame (1986).
Spencer Christian– (1947- ) Charles City; TV weatherman for ABC's "Good Morning America"
Joseph B. Jefferson - Richmond/Petersburg; songwriter. "One of a Kind (Love Affair)" performed by The Spinners and released in 1972, topping the R&B Singles Chart and reaching number eleven on the Billboard Pop Singles chart in 1973. Other songs include "Games People Play," and "Sadie," sampled in "Dear Mama" by Tupac Shakur.
Moses Malone – (1955- ) Petersburg; basketball player; ABA Utah Stars, St. Louis Spirits (1974-76); NBA Buffalo Braves, Houston Rockets, Philadelphia 76ers (1976-95); NBA MVP (1979, '82, '83); named "One of the 50 Greatest Players in NBA History" (1996); member, Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame (2001).
Lawrence Taylor– (1959- ) Williamsburg; football player; Second Overall Draft Pick (NFL Draft, 1981), New York Giants (1981-93); member, pro football Hall of Fame (1999).
Ralph Sampson - (1960- ) Harrisonburg; basketball player. First Overall Draft Pick (NBA Draft, 1983). Houston Rockets (1983-1987), Golden State Warriors (1987-1989), Sacramento Kings (1989-1990), Washington Bullets (1991), Unicaja Ronda of Spain (1992), Rockford Lightning of CBA (1994-1995). Four-time NBA All-Star (1984-1987), NBA Rookie of the Year (1984), NBA All-Star Game MVP (1985).
Bruce Smith – (1963- ) Norfolk; football player; Outland Trophy winner at Virginia Tech (1984) , First Overall Draft Pick (NFL Draft, 1985), Buffalo Bills, Washington Redskins; member, Virginia Sports Hall of Fame (2005); member, College Football Hall of Fame (2006).
Wanda Sykes – (1964- ) Portsmouth; Comedienne and actress. Film and television credits include "The Wanda Sykes Show," "The New Adventures of Old Christine," "Evan Almighty," "Monster-in-Law," "Nutty Professor 2," "Chris Rock Show;" Emmy Award Winner (1999, 2002, 2004, 2005).
Blair Underwood – (1964- ) Tacoma, WA moved to different states and graduated from Petersburg High School; Actor, film and television credits include "Dirty Sexy Money," "Full Frontal," "Rules of Engagement," "City of Angels," "LAX," "L.A. Law," "The Event;" NAACP Image Award Winner (1992, '95, '99, 2001).
Pernell Whitaker – (1964- ) Norfolk; Boxer; Olympic Gold Medalist (1984); member, International Boxing Hall of Fame (2006).
Jesse L. Martin - (1969- ) Rocky Mount; Actor. Broadway and television credits include "Rent," "New York Undercover," "413 Hope Street," "Alley McBeal," "Law & Order," "Smash"
Alonzo Mourning – (1970- ) Chesapeake; Basketball player; Second Overall Draft Pick (NBA Draft, 1992), NBA Charlotte Hornets (1992-95), Miami Heat (1995-2002, 2004-08), New Jersey Nets (2003-04); Olympic Gold Medalist (2000).
Missy Elliott - (1971- ) Portsmouth; Songwriter, Producer, Arranger, Talent Scout, Record Mogel. Considered the top female hip-hop artist of all time. Four-time Grammy Award Winner (2001, 2002, 2003, 2005).
Timothy Z. Mosley, aka Timbaland - (1972- ) Norfolk; Songwriter, Producer, Rapper. One of the highest paid musicians according to a 2007 Forbes article, "Hip Hop Cash Kings." Grammy Award Winner (2006)
Pharrell Williams - (1973- ) Virginia Beach; Composer, Singer, Producer, Rapper, Fashion Designer. Part of hip-hops most successful production team, The Neptunes, and the performing group N*E*R*D. Three-time Grammy Award Winner (two Grammy Awards in 2003, and one in 2006).
Jamie Sharper - (1974- ) Richmond; Baltimore Ravens (1997-2001); Houston Texans (2002-2004); Seattle Seahawks (2005)
Atiim Kiambu Hakeem-ah "Tiki" Barber - (1975- ) Roanoke; Football player, sports broadcaster, author; NFL New York Giants (1997-2006); NBC's "Today," "Football Night in America" and "Sunday Night Football" (2007-present); identical twin brother of "Ronde" Barber.
Jamael Orondé "Ronde" Barber - (1975- ) Roanoke; Football player, author; NFL Tampa Bay Buccaneers (1997-present); Super Bowl XXXVII winner vs. Oakland Raiders (2003); identical twin brother of "Tiki" Barber.
James Farrior - (1975- ) Ettrick; New York Jets (1997-2001); Pittsburgh Steelers (2002-2012); Super Bowl XL and XLIII winner
Allen Iverson - (1975- ) Hampton; Philadelphia 76ers (1996-2006; Rookie of the Year, 2001 league MVP); Denver Nuggets (2007-2008); Detroit Pistons (2009). Olympic Bronze Medalist (Athens 2004)
Darren Sharper - (1975- ) Richmond; Green Bay Packers (1997-2004); Minnesota Vikings (2005-2008); New Orleans Saints (2009-2010)
Plaxico Burress - (1977- ) Norfolk; Pittsburgh Steelers (2000-2004, 2012-present); New York Giants (2005-2008); New York Jets (2011); Super Bowl XLII winner.
Erron Kinney - (1977- ) Ashland; Tennessee Titans (2000-2005)
Michael Vick - (1980- ) Newport News; Football player; NFL Atlanta Falcons (2001-2006); NFL Philadelphia Eagles (2009-present); First African-American quarterback to be drafted first overall in an NFL Draft (2001). First Archie Griffin Award winner (1999). NFL Pro Bowl (2003, 2004, 2005)
DeAngelo Hall - (1983- ) Chesapeake; Atlanta Falcons (2004-2007); Oakland Raiders (2008); Washington Redskins (2008-present)
Michael Robinson - (1983- ) Richmond; San Francisco 49ers (2006-2009); Seattle Seahawks (2010-present); Super Bowl XLVIII winner.
Tremaine "Trey" Aldon Neverson, aka Trey Songz - (1984- ) Petersburg; Singer-Songwriter, Rapper, Producer, and Actor.
Melvin Upton - (1984- ) Norfolk; Tampa Bay Rays (2004-2012); Atlanta Braves (2013-present)
Kendall Langford - (1986- ) - Petersburg; Football player; NFL Miami Dolphins. (2008-2011); NFL St. Louis Rams. (2012-present)
LaShawn Merritt - (1986- ) Portsmouth; Olympic Gold Medalist (Beijing 2008)
Caressa Cameron - (1987- ) - Fredericksburg; 2010 Miss America.
Kam Chancellor - (1988- ) Norfolk; Seattle Seahawks (2010-present); Super Bowl XLVIII winner.
Percy Harvin - (1988- ) Virginia Beach; Minnesota Vikings (2009-2012); Seattle Seahawks (2013-present); Super Bowl XLVIII winner.
Russell Wilson - (1988- ) Richmond; Seattle Seahawks (2012-present); Super Bowl XLVIII winner.
Chris Brown - (1989- ) Tappahannock; Singer-Songwriter, Dancer, Actor.
Chandler Fenner - (1990- ) Virginia Beach; Seattle Seahawks (2012-present); Super Bowl XLVIII winner.
Gabrielle Douglas - (1995- ) Virginia Beach; Gymnast. Olympic Gold Medalist (London 2012). First African-American all-around gymnastics champion.
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