Buckingham County, lying south of the James River at the geographic
center of the state, was established in 1761 from the southeastern
portion of Albemarle County. The origin of the county name comes from
the Duke of Buckingham (Buckinghamshire, England). This is the only
Buckingham County in the United States.
Lee’s army marched
through the county during Lee’s retreat on their way to Appomattox,
Virginia. A marker in the cemetery of Trinity Presbyterian Church in New
Canton reads, "According to the oral history of Trinity Presbyterian
Church and this community, here are 45 Confederate and Union soldiers
buried in mass graves directly behind this church. They left Appomattox
after the surrender and headed for their homes north of here. Sick with
disease, they died in a nearby camp. That they may not be forgotten,
this plaque is placed by the Elliott Grays UDC Chapter #1877 2003."
In 2011, the county celebrated its 250th Anniversary.